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What is metal fabrication?

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What is metal fabrication?

What is metal fabrication?

Metal fabrication

Metal fabrication is the building of metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling processes.

Processes

 

--- from wikipedia

  • Cutting is done by sawing, shearing, or chiseling (all with manual and powered variants); torching with hand-held torches (such as oxy-fuel torches or plasma torches); and via numerical control (CNC) cutters (using a laser, mill bits, torch, or water jet).< > is done by hammering (manual or powered) or via press brakes and similar tools. Modern metal fabricators use press brakes to either coin or air-bend metal sheet into form. CNC-controlled backgauges use hard stops to position cut parts in order to place bend lines in the correct position. Off-line programming software now makes programming the CNC-controlled press brakes seamless and very efficient.< > (joining of the pieces) is done by welding, binding with adhesives, riveting, threaded fasteners, or even yet more bending in the form of a crimped seam. Structural steel and sheet metal are the usual starting materials for fabrication, along with the welding wire, flux, and fasteners that will join the cut pieces. As with other manufacturing processes, both human labor and automation are commonly used. The product resulting from fabrication may be called a fabrication. Shops that specialize in this type of metal work are called fab shops. The end products of other common types of metalworking, such as machining, metal stamping, forging, and casting, may be similar in shape and function, but those processes are not classified as fabrication.Forming is an operation that converts a flat sheet metal work piece into a 3-D part. In this process, a raw material piece is formed by applying force to an object without adding or removing material. The force must be great enough to change the object's initial shape. The process of forming can be controlled with the use of tools such as punches or dies. Machinery can also be used to regulate force magnitude and direction. An example of machine-based forming can also combine forming and welding to produce lengths of fabricated sheeting, most commonly seen in the form of linear grating (used principally for water drainage).

     

    Proper design and use of tools with machinery creates a repeatable form which can be used to create products for many industries, including jewelry, aerospace, automotive, construction, civil and architectural.

    Machining

    Main article: Machining

    Machining is the process of removing unwanted material from the block of metal to get the desired shape. Machining is a trade in and of itself, although fab shops generally entail a limited machining capability including metal lathes, mills, and drills, along with other portable metal working tools.

    Most components such as gears, bolts, screws, and nuts are manufactured by a machining process.

    Welding

    Main article: Welding

    Welding is the main focus of steel fabrication. The formed and machined parts will be assembled and tack welded into place then re-checked for accuracy. A fixturemay be used to locate parts for welding if multiple weldments have been ordered.

    The welder then completes welding as per the engineering drawings if welding is detailed, or as per his/her own judgement if no welding details are provided.

    Special precautions may be needed to prevent warping of the weldment due to heat. These may include re-designing the weldment to use less weld, welding in a staggered fashion, using a stout fixture, covering the weldment in sand during cooling, and straightening operations after welding.

    Straightening of warped steel weldments is done with an oxy-acetylene torch and is somewhat of an art. Heat is selectively applied to the steel in a slow, linear sweep. The steel will have a net contraction, upon cooling, in the direction of the sweep. A highly skilled welder can remove significant warpage using this technique.

    Steel weldments are occasionally annealed in a low-temperature oven to relieve residual stresses. Such weldments, particularly those employed for engine blocks, may be line-bored after heat treatment.

    Final assembly

    After the weldment has cooled it is generally sand blasted, primed and painted. Any additional manufacturing specified by the customer is then completed. The finished product is then inspected and shipped.

Pub Time : 2018-11-22 21:24:57 >> News list
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